At EQUIGAIT we are proud to offer gait analysis solutions backed up by validation studies investigating accuracy and precision. Here, accuracy refers to systematic differences between measurements with our systems and 'gold standard' systems based on optical (camera-based) approaches. Precision on the other hand refers to how consistently any differences occurr for example across different (populations of) horses or different exercise conditions.
Accuracy and precision are in the order of magnitude of stride-to-stride variability of horses indicating that the systems are capable of capturing the average movement of a horse.
Better than the human eye
Visual assessment of movement deficits "by-eye" is limited by the human eye which needs spatial asymmetries to exceed 10 to 25% of the amplitude of movement. Inertial measurement accuracy (and precision) exceed the capabilities of the human eye and in addition provide quantitative unbiased measurements providing an objective record.
The sky is the limit! Motion quantification applied to practical questions.
The sensors used in our systems have been used in many research projects and the flexibility of our system setup is one of the strengths of our systems.
Of course, using our complete state-of-the-art solutions for lameness investigations accompanying the complex veterinary lameness exam is a natural fit!
But, don't overlook the many other applications that are now at your fingertips: long-term monitoring, horse-surface, horse-shoe-surface, horse-rider, horse-saddle-rider interaction, changes across exercises (in-hand or ridden; on the straight or on the circle).
Pfau, T., Witte, T. H. & Wilson, A. M. A method for deriving displacement data during cyclical movement using an inertial sensor. The Journal of experimental biology 208, 2503–2514 (2005).
Warner, S. M., Koch, T. O. & Pfau, T. Inertial sensors for assessment of back movement in horses during locomotion over ground. Equine Veterinary Journal 42 Suppl 3, 417–424 (2010).
Pfau, T., Boultbee, H., Davis, H., Walker, A. & Rhodin, M. Agreement between two inertial sensor gait analysis systems for lameness examinations in horses. Equine Veterinary Education 28, 203–208 (2016).
Pfau, T. & Weller, R. Comparison of a standalone consumer grade smartphone to a specialist inertial measurement unit for quantification of movement symmetry in the trotting horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 49, 124–129 (2017).
Parkes, R. S. V., Weller, R., Groth, a. M., May, S. & Pfau, T. Evidence of the development of ‘domain-restricted’ expertise in the recognition of asymmetric motion characteristics of hindlimb lameness in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 41, 112–117 (2009).
Pfau, T. et al. Comparison of visual lameness scores to gait asymmetry in racing Thoroughbreds during trot in-hand. Equine Veterinary Education 32, 191–198 (2018).
Pfau, T. & Reilly, P. How low can we go? Influence of sample rate on equine pelvic displacement calculated from inertial sensor data. Equine Vet J 53, 1075–1081 (2020).
Pfau, T. et al. Assessment of mild hindlimb lameness during over ground locomotion using linear discriminant analysis of inertial sensor data. Equine Veterinary Journal 39, 407–413 (2007).
Pfau, T., Stubbs, N. C., Kaiser, L. J., Brown, L. E. A. & Clayton, H. M. Effect of trotting speed and circle radius on movement symmetry in horses during lunging on a soft surface. American journal of veterinary research 73, 1890–1899 (2012).
Pfau, T. et al. Movement asymmetry in working polo horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 48, 517–522 (2016).
Pfau, T. et al. Identifying optimal parameters for quantification of changes in pelvic movement symmetry as a response to diagnostic analgesia in the hindlimbs of horses. Equine veterinary journal 46, 759–763 (2014).
Greve, L., Pfau, T. & Dyson, S. Thoracolumbar movement in sound horses trotting in straight lines in hand and on the lunge and the relationship with hind limb symmetry or asymmetry. Veterinary Journal 220, 95–104 (2017).
Greve, L., Pfau, T. & Dyson, S. Alterations in body lean angle in lame horses before and after diagnostic analgesia in straight lines in hand and on the lunge. The Veterinary Journal 239, 1–6 (2018).
Pfau, T. et al. Lungeing on hard and soft surfaces: Movement symmetry of trotting horses considered sound by their owners. Equine Veterinary Journal 48, 83–89 (2016).
Pfau, T., Simons, V., Rombach, N., Stubbs, N. C. & Weller, R. Effect of a 4-week elastic resistance band training regimen on back kinematics in horses trotting in-hand and on the lunge. Equine Veterinary Journ 49, 829–835 (2017).
Pfau, T. et al. Effect of Speed and Surface Type on Individual Rein and Combined Left–Right Circle Movement Asymmetry in Horses on the Lunge. Front. Vet. Sci. 8, 692031 (2021).
Pfau, T., Scott, W. M. & Sternberg Allen, T. Upper Body Movement Symmetry in Reining Quarter Horses during Trot In-Hand, on the Lunge and during Ridden Exercise. Animals 12, 596 (2022).
Pfau, T. et al. Linear Discriminant Analysis for Investigating Differences in Upper Body Movement Symmetry in Horses before/after Diagnostic Analgesia in Relation to Expert Judgement. Animals 12, 762 (2022).
Pfau, T., Noordwijk, K. & Caviedes, M. F. S. Head , withers and pelvic movement asymmetry and their relative timing in trot in racing Thoroughbreds in training. Equine Vet J 50, 117–124 (2018).
Pfau, T. et al. Changes in movement symmetry over the stages of the shoeing process in military working horses. Veterinary Record 179, 195 (2016).
Please do contact us with any queries you may have: